Enlaces zoonóticos del coronavirus SARS-COV-2

Autores/as

  • José Iannacone Universidad Ricardo Palma. Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas. Laboratorio de Parasitología. Lima, Perú.
  • Miguel Tejada Universidad Nacional Federico Villarreal. Grupo de Investigación en Sostenibilidad Ambiental (GISA), Escuela Universitaria de Posgrado (EUPG), Laboratorio de Ecología y Biodiversidad Animal (LEBA). Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Matemática (FCCNM). Lima, Perú.
  • Lorena Alvariño Universidad Nacional Federico Villarreal. Grupo de Investigación en Sostenibilidad Ambiental (GISA), Escuela Universitaria de Posgrado (EUPG), Laboratorio de Ecología y Biodiversidad Animal (LEBA). Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Matemática (FCCNM). Lima, Perú.
  • Luz Castañeda Universidad Nacional Federico Villarreal. Grupo de Investigación en Sostenibilidad Ambiental (GISA), Escuela Universitaria de Posgrado (EUPG), Laboratorio de Ecología y Biodiversidad Animal (LEBA). Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Matemática (FCCNM). Lima, Perú.

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.24039/cv202081765

Palabras clave:

enfermedad viral, COVID19, fauna silvestre, gato, murciélago, pangolín, zoonosis

Resumen

El 11 de marzo del 2020, la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) declaró al COVID-19 como una enfermedad pandémica. Al 21 de abril del 2020, se han registrado a nivel mundial en 210 países y territorios, 2.528.396 casos positivos y 174.547 fallecidos por SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19. Se ha sugerido que la enfermedad puede transmitirse en forma zoonótica de animales a humanos. El objetivo del presente trabajo de revisión fue analizar lo publicado con relación al enlace zoonótico del COVID-19. El SARS-CoV-2 posee una estrecha relación con un coronavirus de murciélago, que fue identificado en Rhinolophus affinis Horsfield, 1823, en la provincia de Yunnan en China, donde se inició el COVID-19. Un análisis exhaustivo de las relaciones mamífero-hospedero-virus ha demostrado que los murciélagos albergan una proporción significativamente mayor de virus zoonóticos que otras órdenes de mamíferos. El pangolín Manis javanica Desmarest, 1822, es el principal sospechoso de ser el hospedero intermediario debido que, al compararse su material genético viral con el del SARS-CoV-2, mostró una alta similitud. En relación a los animales domésticos, se ha descubierto que hurones y gatos son susceptibles a la infección. En cambio, se replica mal en perros, y los cerdos, pollos y patos no son susceptibles al SARS-CoV-2. De igual forma, no hay evidencia certera que sugiera que los animales domésticos infectados tengan un papel en la propagación del COVID-19 a los humanos.

Palabras clave: enfermedad viral, COVID19, fauna silvestre, gato, murciélago, pangolín, zoonosis

 

ABSTRACT

On March 11, 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared COVID-19 as a pandemic illness. As of April 21, 2020, 2,528,396 positive cases and 174,547 deaths from SARS-CoV-2 / COVID-19 have been registered worldwide in 210 countries and territories. It has been suggested that the disease can be transmitted zoonotically from animals to humans. The objective of this review work was to analyze what was published in relation to the zoonotic link of COVID-19. SARS-CoV-2 is closely related to a bat coronavirus, which was identified in Rhinolophus affinis Horsfield, 1823, in China's Yunnan province, where COVID-19 was started. A comprehensive analysis of mammal-host-virus relationships has shown that bats harbor a significantly higher proportion of zoonotic viruses than other orders of mammals. The pangolin Manis javanica Desmarest, 1822, is the main suspect of being the intermediate host, because when comparing its viral genetic material with that of SARS-CoV-2 it showed a high similarity. In relation to domestic animals, ferrets and cats have been found to be susceptible to infection. In contrast, it replicates poorly in dogs, and SARS-CoV-2 is not susceptible in pigs, chickens, and ducks. Similarly, there is no accurate evidence to suggest that infected pets have a role in the spread of COVID-19 to humans.

Key words: bat, cat, pangolin, viral disease, wildlife, zoonosis

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Publicado

2020-08-17

Cómo citar

Iannacone, J., Tejada, M., Alvariño, L., & Castañeda, L. (2020). Enlaces zoonóticos del coronavirus SARS-COV-2. Cátedra Villarreal, 8(1). https://doi.org/10.24039/cv202081765

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